Title : Covid-19 seems to be Initiated by the heparan-sulfate dysregulation by coronavirus: The use of low-molecular- weight heparin (LMWH) can prevent and treat covid-19 when it Is used in early stages, as a heparan-sulfate-regulating medicine
The proteoglycan named heparan sulfate (HS) is found in the extracellular matrix and also on cell surface and may represent one of the most biologically important glycoconjugates, playing essential role in a variety of different events at molecular level. Heparanase is an endo-glucuronidase enzyme expressed in all tissues and play role in diseases mainly through degradation of HS. HS has important regulatory functions in several pathophysiological conditions, including neuroinflamation, synaptic development, regulation of leukocyte activation, modulation of a variety of proteins in the lungs, lipoprotein metabolism in the liver, also in red blood cell adhesion events occurring with pathogens such as herpes simplex virus and P. falciparum. The time to thrombosis has shown to be significantly lower in the heparanase-overexpressing mice and showed a powerful mediator of thrombosis in vascular injury. HS is found at different concentrations and structures, some gender, organ and age specific differences in murine HS was observed in the body of mice. Heparanase has shown to be elevated in covid-19 patients. In COVID-19 different cells and organs are aggravated including lungs, brain, heart, kidneys, gastrointestinal system, skin, erythrocytes, and endothelial dysfunction and loss of endothelial barrier function is well demonstrated. No specific clinically approved heparanase inhibitors are currently available. Hypothesizing that heparin-sulfate dysregulation contributes in starting covid-19 syndrome as the early pathogenesis of COVID-19, LMWH has been used in three groups: A) ten volunteers as preventive B) Fifty-one covid-19 patients in different stages of the disease C) 18 patients with side effects of the disease. In the group A, 7 volunteers experienced a very mild disease in comparison with the other members of the family and one male remained disease-free. The patients in group B recovered significantly faster regarding the ones that didn’t used LMWH with the easing of their symptoms. Significant improvement of the side effects was achieved in the group C.
The conclusion is that heparan- sulfate dysregulation may initiate covid-19 pathology and can be intervened by early administration of LMWH as preventing, easing the symptoms and treating the disease as a regulator of heparan- sulfate system.